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   The 150th anniversary of Canada celebrates the efforts of many men, women, children, soldiers, politicians, and visionaries. Spectacular events also contribute: the Wolfe – Montcalm face-off on the Plains of Abraham, the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Fenian Raids, the Lower Canada Rebellion, and the frontier settlers of the Eastern Townships. The settlers were branded as squatters but they insisted that they were not sojourners. The resolve to create a new life was supported by the presence of the church through courageous clergy – fine buildings would come later.
    Among the clergy who came to Missisquoi Bay was the Rev. Charles Caleb Cotton of the Church of England (Anglican). It was over twenty years since the first families arrived in the Bay area and many newcomers were arriving. The area was briefly served by two short terms missionaries (Robert Quirk Short and James Marmaduke Tunstall) with little success. Cotton held church services wherever it was possible, boarded with a family, and found the people to lack interest and piety. He lasted four years and moved on his own volition to nearby Dunham. The move brought a reprimand from the bishop whose duty it was to transfer the clergy.
    Charles Caleb Cotton was born July 31, 1775 in Eton England. He was the oldest of thirteen children born to his school teacher father and Swiss mother whose father was a French professor at Oxford. Cotton graduated in 1797 and was immediately ordained a deacon. He soon moved to the United States where he taught school but the pay forced him to find church work which took him to New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 1804 found Cotton in Quebec City and the first priest to be ordained in the new Holy Trinity Cathedral. He was immediately assigned to work in the area of Missisquoi Bay (St. Armand and Caldwell Manor).
    The move to Dunham was a challenge for Rev. Cotton. He encountered competition from Methodist and Baptist itinerant missionaries. He boarded with a family of eight in a two room cabin; cleared three homestead farms; a church building (All Saints) was erected in 1821.He established a Sunday School, baptized 617 people, married 656 couples, and buried 187 people. He tutored two men for the ministry (Rev. Micajah Townsend and Rev. James Reid). However, his 40 year ministry in Dunham was not without controversy as he once refused to bury a lady who received baptism from some other denomination and was thought to be eccentric in manner and speech. He was one of the few clergy to receive a stipend which meant that he did not have to depend on what money was locally raised.

  Rev. Cotton married Drusilla Pettis (June 22 1814) with whom he had seven children. A son, Charles Edward Cotton, was a physician in Brome. Rev. Cotton baptized his grandson, Charles Stuart Cotton, in October 1842. He died October 9, 1848 and was buried in the cemetery of Holy Trinity Church, Cowansville.
References Brome and Knowlton Church of England in Canada St John & St Peter 1842- 1879, Image 12, Folio 6. Millman, Thomas R. “COTTON, CHARLES CALEB,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 7, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed April 26, 2017,
Thanks to Richard Worden

The Eastern Townships, a pictorial record : historical prints and illustrations of the Eastern Townships

A few images are from the Missisquoi county area,  the entire book may be viewed here 

Missisquoi Historical Society Yearly report for 1965: Century Property Owner's Certificates


This list appeared in the Missisquoi County Historical Society 8th Yearly Report for 1965 here is a transcription of the names.of certificate recipients

                An attempt has been made by the Missisquoi County Historical Society to honour the pioneer families of the county. Those who own property which has been in the continuous possession of their families for at least one hundred years are eligible to receive Century Property Owner Certificates.
                 At the opening of the new museum in July thirty-three certificates were presented by Mr. J. J. Bertrand, M.L.A. for Missisquoi. Since that time fourteen more have been awarded.
                 Mr. Clifford Rhicard and his committee have tried to contact all who might qualify for these awards. This has been done by newspaper publicity and by the sending out of application forms. It is hoped that others who are, or who may become eligible, will contact an official of the Society and ask for an application form.

Those who have already received certificates are listed in the following table.
Recipient of Certificate  Original Owner  Relationship to present Owner  Date
Miss Violet Armstrong --Dunham --Captain Robert Small-- Great-grandfather-- 1834
Mr. Arthur Beattie-- Sweetsburg-- James Beattie-- Great-uncle-- 1850
Mr. Lynn Bell Brigham-- John Bell -- Grandfather-1840
Mr. Murray Blinn-- Stanbridge East-- James Blinn--Great-great-grandfather --before 1807
Mr. Basil Callaghan --Stanbridge East --Alonzo Harris-- Grandfather--before 1850
Mr. Burton Carter-- Cowansville--  Absalom Carter Father--1840
Mr. Cyril Chrysler-- Stanbridge East-- William Chrysler--Great-grandfather --1840
Mr. Gardner Chrysler --Stanbridge East-- Alfred Russell--Uncle --1884
Mr/Mrs. Stanley Cochrane-- Bedford-- John Sornberger--  Great-grandfather-- Mrs. Cochrane -- 1853
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Cook--  Bedford-- Lindol Corey-- Great-great-grandfather of  Mrs. Cook -- by1849
Mrs. Frank Corey-- Bedford-- Lindol Corey II--Husband's grandfather--1859
Mrs. Earl Cornell-- Stanbridge East-- Matthew Saxe -- Husband's great-grandfather--1830
Mrs. Richard Craighead --Bedford --  Benjamin McDonald-- Great-grandfather --1815
 Mr. Archie Dryden-- Cowansville --Thomas Dryden-- Great-grandfather -- 1840
Mr. Earle Dryden-- Cowansville-- James Humphrey-- Great-grandfather -- 1850
Mr. Floyd Fadden --Noyan --Daniel Fadden--   Father --1857
Mr. Donald Gardner --Stanbridge East --Lester Gardner --Great-grandfather-- 1855
The Hall Family-- Dunham-- William Hall --Great-grandfather-- 1835

Mr. Norman Hanigan --des Rivières-- Patrick Hanigan --Great-grandfather--1832
Mr. Junior Harvey--Dunham--Hiram Harvey--Great-grandfather--1856
Mr. Clarence Hawley-- Clarenceville -- Peter Hawley -- Great-great-grandfather --1777
Mr. Victor Jenkins --Bedford -- Frederick-- Primmerman -- Great-great-grandfather -- before 1792
Mr. Ellis Jones -Bedford -- Jonas Jones -- Great-great-grandfather --1858
Mr.  & Mrs. Amos Laduke-- Stanbridge East -- Wilber Corey -- Grandfather of Mrs. Laduke --1849
Mr. Albert MacCallum -- Noyan -- John MacCallum -- Great-uncle --1845
Mr. Donald MacCallum-- Noyan -- Daniel MacCallum -- Great-great-grandfather --1784
Mr. Glendon MacCallum -- Noyan -- John MacCallum -- Great-granduncle -- 1845
Mr. John MacCallum -- Noyan -- John MacCallum- Great-great-granduncle -- 1845
Mr. Arthur Mahannah -- Brigham --Frederick Mahannah -- Grandfather --1840
Mr. John McAleer -- Bedford -- Miles McAleer -- Great-grandfather -- 1834
Mr. & Mrs. Sinclair/McIntosh, Bedford -- Benjamin MacDonald -- Great-grandfather --of Mrs. McIntosh 1815
Mrs. Mitchell Mill -- St. Sebastien -- Patrick Neville's -- father -- Great-great-grandfather before 1846
Mr. Gordon Miltimore --Sweetsburg -- Archibald Miltimore -- Great-grandfather --1836
Mr. Hugh Monaghan -- Clarenceville -- John Monaghan Sr. -- Grandfather -- 1843
Mrs. James Moore -- Cowansville -- Michael Hearne -- Husband's grandfather --1846
Mr. Walter Neville -- St. Sebastien -- Patrick Neville's -- father -- Grandfather -before 1846
Mr. & Mrs. Jack Pattenden -- Bedford -- David Vaughan -- Great-great-grandfather of Mrs. Pattenden -- 1809
Mr. Ralph Perkins--  Sutton -- George Perkins -- Great-great-grandfather -- before 1848
Mr. Calno Primmerman -- St. Armand -- Frederick -- Primmerman --Great-great-grandfather- before 1792
Mrs. O. C. Selby -- Dunham -- Levi Stevens -- Grandfather -- before 1859
Mrs. Florance Simpson -- Noyan -- John Derick -- Grandfather -- before 1834
Mr. Byron Smith -- Stanbridge Station -- Rev. Bernabas Hitchcock -- Great-great-granduncle--about 1800
Mr. & Mrs. Asa Stote -- Stanbridge East -- Asa Westover --Great-great-great-grandfather of both -before 1843
Mr. Kenneth Tree --Stanbridge East --Caleb Tree --Great-grandfather -- 1796 
Mr. Alexander Walbridge  -- Mystic -- Solomon Walbridge -- Grandfather-- 1849
Mr. Raymond Westcott -- Stanbridge East --John Sweet -- Great-great-great-grandfather --1803
Miss Grace Wilson -- Mr. Fred Wilson -- Noyan -- William Wilson -- Grandfather--1850

 Transcription of list from MHS year book #8 19656

Resource Guide to Canadian Genealogy

Do you have any Canadian genealogy in your family history? Many people do, especially in North America and the United Kingdom. Being on the same continent, quite a bit of travel and immigration between the United States and Canada, and even Mexico and Canada has taken place over the centuries since European colonization began.
The written history of the West Part of Farnham Township is fragmentary and often contradictory.  There is a real need for some student of history to make a search of original sources in order that authentic records may be gathered into something resembling a connected story of the area before the Township was divided into two parts for electoral purposes in 1855.
    It appears that the boundaries of Farnham Township were surveyed by Ephraim Nash in 1796, as his Field Book of Survey, bearing that date, is in the files of the Brome County Historical Society at Knowlton.  The Township was set up by proclamation Oct. 22, 1798, and on that date roughly the eastern half of the
Township was granted to Samuel Gale and 22 others, his “Associates”, with the usual 2.7 reserved for the crown and clergy.
    Those receiving the “A” grants at that time were, Samuel Gale (1200 acres), Oliver Wells and Samuel Wells (1200 acres),Robert and Richard Wells (1200 acres), David Wells (1400 acres),Nathaniel Church (2400 acres), Reuben Church (2400 acres),Abraham and Jacob G. Cuyler (2200 acres), Cornelius Cuyler(1200 acres), Micah Townsend (1200 acres), Ephreim Nash (1200acres), John Jones (1140 acres), James Sutherland (200 acres),Alexander Shut (200 acres), John Goudy (200 acres), John Goudy Jr. (200 acres), A. Howe (200 acres), John McBris (sic) (200acres), Wm. Matheus (sic) (200 acres), John Steel (1200 acres),Charles St. Ours (3000 acres).
    It was not until Sept. 9th, 1805 that the “B” grants were made to the following persons.  These lots were in the western part of the Township.  
Jane Cuyler, Lots 28, 30, 31, 34, 35 in Range 1. (1200 acres).
Cathalina Cuyler, Lots 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, Range 2. (1200 acres).
Heth Baldwin, Lots 40, 41, 43, 44, in Range 2.  Lots 45, 46, in Range 3.  (1200 acres).
 Elizabeth Cuyler, Lots 27, 28,29, 31, 32, 34, in Range 3, (1200 acres).
    There are contradictions in the historical reports of grants to the Allsopp family in 1809.  Mrs. Day, in her History of the Eastern Townships, says “an extensive tract of this wild land was made to George Allsopp Esq. for government service, but years elapsed before it was claimed by the heirs of the grantee.”
    Rev. E.M. Taylor, in his History of Brome County, lists, quoting from “Bouchette’s History”, “John Aslopp (sic) and others” as receiving grants of 10,176 acres of land in Farnham on Feb. 11th, 1809.
    M. L’Abbe St-Pierre, in his Histoire de St. Romuald de Farnham, repeats Mrs. Day’s statement.    However, another publication entitled, “Lists of Lands Granted by the Crown in the Province of Quebec from 1763 to Dec. 31st, 1890.” published in Quebec 1891, gives the following detailed information which appears to derive from the official records.
    February 11th, 1809, “C” grants.
    John Allsopp – Lots 44, Range 4; Lots 39, 40, 42, 43,
Range 5; Lots 37, 39, 40, Range 6; Lot 39; (1800 acres).
    Carleton Allsopp – Lots 39, 41, Range 3: Lots 38, 40, 41,
42, Range 4; Lots 36,38, Range 5; (1600 acres).
    Robert Allsopp – Lots 41, 42, 43, Range 7; Lots 42, 43, 44,
45, 46, 47 and 48, Range 8; (2000 acres).
    James Allsopp – Lots 45, 47, Range 4; Lots 45, 46, Range
5; Lots 41, 43, 44,46, Range 6; (1600 acres).
    William Allsopp – Lots 48, 49, Range 4; Lots 47, 49,
Range 5; Lots 45, 46, 48, Range 6; (2000 acres).
    Anna M. Allsopp – Lots 35, 36, 38, Range 3; Lots 31, 33,
34, 35, 37, Range 4 (1800 acres).
    August 24th, 1834, “C” grants.
    Sax Family – Lots 37, 38, Range 1; Lots 37,39, S 1/2 46,
Range 2; Lots 47,48, Range 2, (1100 acres).
    There were a few more grants in 1832,1837, 1847, (to the British American Land Co.) and 1855.
    It would be an interesting exercise for some researcher to determine who, among these grantees, actually settled on their grants in West Farnham.  We do know that Samuel Gale and several of his Associates in East Farnham did so.  None of the Cuylers appear to have lived on their grants.  The Saxes did settle in Farnham.  They were the descendants of the Saxes who were pioneers in St. Armand.  John Saxe had a sawmill.    The Allsopp family evidently considered their lands in Farnham hardly worth exploiting before 1840, when James Carleton Allsopp, John Bonfield Allsopp and John Charles Allsopp commenced to liquidate their holdings.
    In 1847 Col. James Allsopp gave land in Farnham for the establishment of an Anglican church.  At that date he was still living at Cap Sante’, Que.    Space limitations now force me to curtail this line of inquiry.  It would be elaborated with information now at hand.
                                                                                       G.P. Hawke
MHS#6 1960




    The Township Reformer printed in Stanbridge East.  Editor Elkanah Phelps, 1837.  R.A. McDowell, Printer
    “Justice to all Classes, Usurpation over None” . . . .    Agents for Reformer in Noyan:  David Carr.  Beech Ridge,P. Weeks.  Clarenceville: J.W. Hapgood, P.M. 
    The Missikoui Standard – Published every Tuesday morning.  J.D. Gilman, Editor, Frelighsburg.  First published,April 8, 1835.

    The Gleaner – Devoted to the news of the day, politics --agriculture – Religion – Temperance and Literature.  Printed and published every Tuesday morning in Philipsburg by H. Carr in 1847.  Office over the P.O.
 The Missisquoi News and Frontier Advocate – 1848 --Philipsburg, Canada East.  Editor W.W. Smith.
    District of Bedford Times Published only three years 1866-69 at Sweetsburg by Mr. Rose.
Bedford Times established in 1878 by A.L. Lance and printed in Bedford. Missisquoi Record printed every Friday morning in Stan-bridge East by M.D. Corey Editor and Publisher, A.H.
Gilmour, Prop.

    The Cowansville Observer – This paper was first printed in Cowansville in 1870 by John Massie.  He was the first editor of a weekly paper who conceived the idea of devoting consider-able space to matters transpiring within a radius of twenty miles.  A course which brought down upon him the sarcasmof many of his contemporaries for a time, but he lived to see this course adopted by them also, who previously deemed nothing short of burglary, murder or suicide of sufficient importance to occupy their paper.  Mr. Massie continued his paper until his death in 1886, but the Observer continued being printed until around 1910.
  Gibson’s Monthly was printed in Cowansville by W.N.Gibson as early as 1899 and was noted for its many fine historical items.
Cotton’s Weekly was printed in Cowansville in 1912 by Wm.Ulric Cotton but did not run for too many years.